Instructions for sugar beet
Prefatory
Having the necessary knowledge about various issues of planting each crop, the production can increase performance and profitability it plays an important role. Therefore it is necessary before attempting to farmers planted about different stages of each product type, planting and harvesting, and the information necessary to achieve sufficient. About this issue as one of sugar beet farming and the important strategic and honest is very important. Therefore, sugar company in line with long-term goals of the agricultural sector, which certainly increased their success rate in the agricultural production and enhance the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sugar beet is a useful educational programs for farmers have special price contracts. For this purpose, the company's agriculture department to prepare a series of Articles in various issues of sugar beet cultivation, selection of land to harvest action has Anshaa ... appropriate time to provide the farmers are. This publication discusses the environmental conditions suitable for sugar beet cultivation and general principles will be discussed .
Virtues of sugar beet
Sugar beet with a lot of advantages which is the most important ones are :
1 - beet formed one of the key components of the national economy is agriculture .
2 - sugar beet to a wide range of weather conditions and is compatible with soil .
3 - sugar beet in terms of nutritional value in row crops such as rice, corn, grain, potatoes and beans are .
4 - now the possibility of complete mechanization of sugar beet cultivation is provided .
5 - sugar beet crops in the rotation fall into well-being and deep roots and being removed from farms that allow weeds in different Tnavbhay be replaced. Beet soil in the best conditions for cultivation of barley, which are planted later and keeps improving grain yield. Sugar beet plant is a weed that while lowering the density (number) weed control, soil fertility and osteoporosis can improve .
6 - beet byproducts are valuable. Header and beet pulp with molasses mixture obtained after operation of factories, livestock feed is. Sugar beet plant has two products, leaves and roots to forage for sugar making .
7th - the value of a hectare of sugar beet shoots to improve soil fertility if the soil to be returned against 20 to 30 tons of animal manure .
8 - Sugar beet is a guaranteed product and buy it every year will be guaranteed by the government .
Adjustment of sugar beet
Sugar beet under different conditions than the peripheral compatibility with the relatively "is a lot. To cold, heat, drought and salinity tolerance is good. However, to achieve maximum yield, it is necessary for it like other crops provide the best growth conditions made. suitable conditions to grow the sugar beet Zyrnd :
1 - Heat :
The best growth occurs when the sugar beet that the maximum temperature in summer does not exceed 35 degrees and sunny days of autumn, the air temperature in the low temperature at night to be near freezing. Overall, the growth of sugar beet suitable temperature between 20 and 24 ° C .
Temperature suitable for sugar beet seed germination between 15 ° C is 20. But to reach such a temperature and the culture conditions, it is necessary long-term growing season is lost and the possibility of such a practice "does not exist. So when the average daily temperature from 4 to 5 ° C reached, can be compared planting seeds to proceed .
2 - Light :
Sugar beet plant is a long day and a lot of light for growth and sugar accumulation in roots needs. There is enough light in the late growing period, causing the high and increasing reserve sugar beet are qualitative properties. This purpose should correct distance and plant density desired plant farm special significance, and also attempt to improve the health of the leaves to control weeds as well as quick emergency action to do .
3 - Moisture :
Although sugar beet is resistant to drought, but achieving a high yield, requires the existence of sufficient moisture and irrigation plan is accurate. For Chghndrkary usually mild and light irrigation is useful for producing a root 500 grams of about 40 to 50 liters of water are needed. Total water requirement of sugar beet during the growing season in different parts of the country between 7300 to 13,600 cubic meters per hectare have been mentioned .
4 - Soil :
Fertile soils with good drainage, with medium texture (clay - sandy) and acidity (pH) neutral to slightly alkaline (7 to 2 / 7) are suitable for sugar beet. Soils contain large amounts of rock, soil and pressed hard, usually are associated with lack of organic material, are not suitable for sugar beet cultivation. Basically, the environment suitable for sugar beet soil environment that the air between soil particles and there is plenty of soil, firm and dense and not preventing the flow of water to penetrate. Loose soil and allows thinning beet roots as deep in the earth goes down well and grow .
Except sugar beet in the early stages of growth is resistant to soil salinity. However, high soil salinity as a limiting factor in the account comes to sugar beet production .
Planting date :
Generally can not be historically accurate in terms of sugar beet cultivation in the calendar for each region be expressed. Recommended planting date based on the exact temperature occurs. Sugar beet cultivation in the earliest possible date after the end of winter frost (in late March and early April) is possible. Delay in planting date, especially in areas with short growing period, resulting in yield reduction will be. When the average daily temperature was 4 to 5 degrees centigrade, can be planted to sugar beet seed. When planting beet ground situation must be desired in terms of moisture .
Prepared the ground :
Product of sugar beet, largely depends on soil structure and seed bed preparation is. Deep plowing, plowing time, application and use herbicides before appearing Seedlings of sugar beet (planting bed to be free of weeds), are all factors that medium suitable for sugar beet seeds and young plants can cause . The best time to do the plowing the fields are planted in autumn in which case the possibility of optimal use of machinery (in the autumn that they are not needed), proper storage Drkhak humidity, non-delayed spring planting and provide water saving is. Otherwise the entry of heavy machinery for land preparation in the spring due to the rush of spring planting farmers forcibly before Gavrv soil and prevent land degradation will be minimized .
At the time of plowing, fertilizers Fsfrh, Ptas·h, organic fertilizers and livestock farms are broadcast at the proper depth to be mixed with soil. It is better to use phosphorus, and potassium phosphate Super source of potassium sulfate to provide the source. In autumn plowing, deep plowing should be between 30 and 35 cm on the ground in terms of moisture status (Gavrv) is. Immediately after the cold is necessary that other steps to prepare the earth to do. At this time, only need a superficial tillage with chisel plow is used. Such Shkhmy resulting loss of fresh green weeds also can be. To soften the soil and destroy the earth hunk remaining disks can be used. After these operations, using Malay, completely leveling the ground
Be. Trowel to compact the earth drawn on soil and loss of spaces within the soil and thus soil Mvyyngy mode and uniform planting depth makes it possible. The important point is that during the preparation of land, soil moisture is not too much, otherwise the soil structure is destroyed .
Seed types and amount of consumption
Sugar beet seeds based on the number of buds that can cause some to have been divided into two categories :
1 - seeds germ poly (a few germ): seeds are usually planted in the result "more than one bud (usually 2 to 5) is produced germ bridge say the seeds .
2 - Mnvzhrm seeds (a single bud): Planting the seeds that they can be produced only one bud to say Mnvzhrm .
According to type of seed, seed viability, weather conditions, planting methods, soil texture and salinity, fertile land power, sowing time, extent and manner of irrigation, land preparation and ... the amount of seed used per unit area will be different farm was .
Generally, in traditional and undesirable conditions using 20 to 25 kg seed ha poly germ is sufficient if the ground is heavy and salty, it is necessary more seed value (about 30 kg) could be used .
Mechanized cultivation methods for a Chghndrkary ha, about 3-2 kg of seed viability is required at least 90 percent of the lines between 50 cm and the distance seeds 8-4 cm deep and 2 to 3 cm can be grown. Situation where the status of this land for planting seeds is not suitable, the seeds sprout a few are used in most recent 12-10 kg of seeds would be needed .
Sugar beet cultivation methods :
Sugar beet cultivation to traditional methods, mechanized and Nshayy occur :
A - traditional (Krty ):
In this method, after preparing the ground operation, or by Bill Mrzksh, land plots will be created. The important point is that the plots must be level "is clear. There are postal and long in the land, leading to water reaching high areas and accumulation of water in areas that do Gvdtr is causing a lot of wasted water. Accumulation root cause asphyxiation in the field of water and increased activity of root rot fungi creator is. after preparing the plots, plots within the seed by hand and sprayed to a depth of 2 to 3 cm of soil are mixed .
Increase the amount of seed consumption, water consumption increases, becoming more severe root rot disease, inability to use mechanized equipment for performing related activities and harvesting, and finally rising production costs, the most important disadvantages of this method are cultured. Generally, this method of cultivation of sugar beet due to plenty of problems is not recommended .
B - mechanized methods :
This method of sugar beet seeds in the middle or sides of the stack are planted and sprinkler irrigation methods or leaks are. In this case the water never reaches the foot of the plant and therefore not Slh not preclude the soil surface. On the other hand the possibility of expansion and the creation of plant diseases (especially root rot) will be less. The most important advantages of this method easier operation, planting and harvesting, and thus reducing production costs and decrease water use and irrigation efficiency is higher .
The most important points of interest in the mechanized planting of sugar beet are as follows :
1 - use of irrigation system leaks, surface must be completely "leveling soil and seed diameter is less than two centimeters. Slope of land suitable for mechanized cultivation of about 1 to 2 is in the thousands. Homogeneous culture, set the proper planting depth and mechanized harvest spoilage only be completed if the land leveling is possible .
2 - The most important thing about preparing the land for sugar beet that soil to a depth of about 3 cm, completely "soft, without any unfavorable factors such as rock, Rock, and roots of the plants is .... In total depth of seeding, depending on soil type, the possibility of revelation rain or irrigation for germination and soil temperature between 2 to 5 cm is .
3 - If the land in terms of leveling or grading problems is the use of seeds Mnvzhrm not suitable and is better than a few sprouts seeds are used. If using seeds germ poly for mechanized cultivation, better seeds is ranked (calibrated) are used .
4 - the most suitable space rows (of leakage) was 50 cm (although there are other methods of cultivation) and the length of the Faroe soil from 120 to 150 meters to change. Of course, sprinkler irrigation systems, land leveling and observing the problem during the planting lines were optional and given the capacity of irrigation system are elected .
5 - planting seeds Bzrafshanhay Mnvzhrm using pneumatic and accurate work is recommended. The exact set of furrows loss of seeds and observe the exact distance lines and depth of planting, promotes further facilitating the operation had to be. Desired speed furrows less than five miles per hour is .
6 - Irrigation of sugar beet and important points that need to stage a four-leaf soil remains moist. Sugar beet seed in terms of having a hard coating layer, at the time of cultivation for the production of high moisture needs to sprout. Beet seeds at this stage around 120 to 150 weight percent water needs until it sprouts from seed and Tndsh out. When the sprouts produced, but are not yet out of the soil is necessary for convenience and speed of germination weak early exit from the soil, irrigated land again until the soil surface, is soft and moist. After the buds were removed from the soil, spacing and irrigation frequency and amount of water depends on atmospheric conditions (amount of rainfall, temperature, humidity and environment ...), soil, land slope, Vmrhlh digit growth it beet is . Heavy irrigation treatments at planting due to cool the earth, causing a delay in seeds can germinate .
Weeds and their control
One of the most damage from the plants are weeds in the fields sees, is sugar beet. Sugar beet in the early months of growth in competition with weeds is very weak, that this problem leads to severe yield reduction in infected farms are weeds. Overall losses due to weeds in sugar beet fields, much more than pests and diseases is damage. In many instances, due to factors such as improper use of herbicides or lack of appropriate and timely weeding farms, hectare farm beet under weed invasion and domination have been destroyed .
The most important damage stage of weeds in sugar beet fields up to 8 leaf stage of sugar beet plants are getting. If sugar beet farm in the first quarter after planting, keep free of weeds, other weeds will require disposal and damage to the product does not enter. But that is because of the weed control in sugar beet fields until harvest time to prevent the seeds of their sitting to reduce their rate of subsequent cultures is important. Also, remove weeds during the growing season led to a withdrawal of the product will be easier .
Specific content of total listed is the time of weed control with thin sugar beet fields to make faster and has a very important operations delayed and sparse weed fields irreparable losses to farmers could enter .
Generally, in order to achieve effective weed control sugar beet fields, it is necessary that several different methods including spraying crops, using field cultivator and hand weeding in combination, can be used as follows .
A - The first and most important step in weed control using chemical herbicides are appropriate. The success rate for the use of herbicides, totally consumed with how to correct them .
B - In addition to the use of herbicides suitable for eliminating the remaining weeds between the lines of culture is necessary to be used field cultivator .
C - Either part of weed planting spacings for different reasons, by the use of between and are not due to being near the sugar beet plants also can be controlled by a field cultivator are, it is necessary to the grass during the sparse field to be removed by workers from a farm free of weeds will be created .
Pests and diseases of sugar beet fields
Sugar beet pests and pathogenic attack a lot is placed. According to available statistics the average annual damage on sugar beet pests Vbymaryha between 11 to 33 percent. For example, pesticides can Karadryna during a day of young sugar beet farms to destroy or some short-beet fields, the number of red palm weevil is high, a large part of two leaves and young plants of this pest Bvsylh beets are eaten and Green goes from the farm level that need Vakary occur. Compensate for such delays during the growing season is not possible .
Considering the profit performance of sugar beet production and reduce production costs has a large dependence, careful planning is needed to combat pests and diseases act comes to a sharp drop in performance is prevented. A successful control program, including coordination procedures that culture from the beginning and even before the end of season one after the other can be used to ultimately results acceptable to bring .
The most important pests of sugar beet fields in Isfahan province include :
Coke, red palm weevil, short crown on the cream, the butterfly leaf beetle (Karadryna), willow sugar beet (Lyta), of leaf aphid, root aphid, mite
The most important diseases of sugar beet fields in Isfahan province include :
Root rot and crown, generating cyst nematode, Krly top, surface mildew, viruses jaundice
To sparse
One of the mandatory operations and expensive to farm sugar beet is tender. In most cases, a large number of additional plants consume excessive farm seeds Jude come smell this plant should be to remove the extra buds remaining opportunity to grow and give a good product. Otherwise sparse field plant light, temperature, air and did not receive enough food and growth of little benefit. The earlier time to be sparse, the remaining plants are growing better. The best time to thin before the six-leaf stage plant is. Generally too late to tender farm it constitutes a late implantation. Since completion of the tender operation may be the root of some remaining plants are damaged, do a heavy irrigation is required .
Feeding sugar beet
Like other crops, sugar beets also only part of their food needs from the soil supply and the rest should be from chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers, or sprayed on the leaf surface can be provided. For sugar beet cultivation should, fertilizers and Ptas·h Fsfrh the amount recommended in the fall uniformly spread on the ground and first disk light in the depth of 10-5 cm soil mixed. Then attempted to have the initial deep plowing manure at different levels to a depth of plowing the soil to be uniformly distributed. Preferred source of phosphorus use super phosphate and potassium sulfate, potassium source is recommended. The role of potassium in the growth of sugar beet plays is necessary that the use of fertilizers Ptas·h always be special attention .

Use of animal fertilizers, especially organic fertilizers can greatly increase the yield and quality of sugar beet fields is useful as possible, which is better than the fertilizer used on farms .
Micro-element deficiency (iron, manganese, on, on and...) In sugar beet fields, in some cases up to 30 percent reduces the yield and reduce root resistance to diseases and pests is that this issue needed application of fertilizer in the fields will clear .
The most important point about the proper use of fertilizer Rating beet is nitrogen fertilizers. Some farmers until the last days before harvest to measure nitrogen fertilizers that they do this very wrong and the quality of sugar beet, especially percent reduces the severity. Generally, the use of chemical fertilizers correctly and technical ways of product to reach higher. If needed fertilizers at the right time is short, yield decreases. Also, excessive consumption of fertilizer in addition to the loss of large quantities of fertilizer, soil structure degradation and environmental pollution has also followed. The other hand, this problem leads to plant poisoning and the final product also decreases. For example, use much less nitrogen to reduce the sugar beet root yield is about 50 percent. On the other hand the higher consumption of sugar as it reduced the percentage (grade) will be up to several units. Thus it is based on the correct method, the approximate amount required fertilizers in the farm set. That how much fertilizer during the season and should be consumed during the cultivation, through the tests will be determined by soil analysis .
Irrigated sugar beet
Virtually all known methods of irrigation in the world, including surface irrigation (via atmospheric and stack, irrigation Krty tape) and different methods of sprinkler irrigation on sugar beet are used

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